Among which people human males were not understood to be a part of reproduction?
Among the Tiwi of the Melville and Bathurst islands off the northern coast of Australia, females were betrothed at birth. Females in this society were always married. This practice was related to the Tiwi belief that females became impregnated by child spirits. However, Tiwi society also required that every individual has a "social father" - a husband of the children's mother.
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