Top 10 minerals factsMinerals quiz
What's the origin of the word "turquoise"?
Turkey as a country. The name Turquoise was established in the seventeenth century and came from the name of Turkey (turquoise is French for "Turkish"), because the mineral was first brought to Europe from Turkey. Ancient Romans called this rock Kalalit.
What was graphite believed to be a form of?
Lead. When large deposit of graphite was found in the 16th century in England, it was thought to be a form of lead. In many languages, the word for pencil literally means lead pen. (German Bleistift, Polish ołówek, Arabic قلم رصاص)
Where do you have the best chance to find a natural diamond?
Near the volcano. It is sometimes mistakenly believed that diamonds are made from coals. High pressure and heat is required for the formation of diamonds from carbons, but these carbons are not the ones that form coal. Diamonds are formed deep under the surface and are brought up during outbreaks of volcanoes.
Where are such formations usually found?
In deserts. Desert rose is the colloquial name given to rosette formations of crystal clusters of gypsum or baryte which contain abundant sand grains. Desert roses occur when the crystals form in arid sandy conditions, such as the evaporation of a shallow salt basin.
Which of the minerals below show pleochroism?
Alexandrite. Pleochroism is an optical phenomenon in which a substance has different colors when observed at different angles, especially with polarized light. Alexandrite appears greenish in daylight where the full spectrum of visible light is present, and reddish in incandescent light which emits less green and blue spectrum.
Which of these structures is currently the thinnest, lightest and strongest artificially created material?
Graphene has many unusual properties. It is the strongest material ever tested,efficiently conducts heat and electricity and is nearly transparent. The material , isolated, and characterized in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester. Research was informed by existing theoretical descriptions of its composition, structure, and properties This work resulted in the two winning the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene."
Which of these elements is not a "rare earth metal"?
Rhodium. Despite their name, rare-earth elements are – with the exception of the radioactive promethium – relatively plentiful in Earth's crust, with cerium being the 25th most abundant element at 68 parts per million, or as abundant as copper. They find application in the most dynamically developing areas of high technology industry such as: aviation, space flights, production of mobile phones (smartphones).
What is karst?
A kind of chemical decomposition. Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. It has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions.
Sapphire is a blue variety:
Of corundum. Sapphire is a gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium. It is typically blue in color, but natural "fancy" sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors. Pink colored corundum may be either classified as ruby or sapphire depending on locale.